|History of the Conaliteg|
History from 1944 to 1982
From 1944, the then Secretary of Public Education Jaime Torres Bodet - outstanding man of letters, academic and diplomatic Mexican felt a great preoccupation by the books with which he was educated to the children and children of the obligatory education of the country. On the other hand, young lawyer, Adolfo López Mateos, noticed from that one time that the principle of gratuity of the basic education - consecrated in the Constitution he was not totally being fulfilled because the text books were excessively expensive, of bad quality and inaccessible for most of the Mexican families.
When he arrived at the Presidency of the Republic in 1958, López Mateos was with a population with high levels of illiteracy and poverty that mined the equitable access to the educative services: little he can make the school by the children if their parents do not have resources to buy text books to them? He said. In order to do against such problems, López Mateos chose to whom had been disciple of the teacher Jose Vasconcelos to occupy, for the second time, the Secretariat of Public Education: Jaime Torres Bodet.
Torres Bodet impelled an extensive campaign of alphabetization all over Mexico with a firm idea: that each student of the obligatory level attended the school with a text book under the arm, paid by the Federation. Thus the idea was born to create the National Commission of Text Books Gratuitous (CONALITEG), with the vision of which the gratuitous text book, besides a social right, outside a vehicle that authorized the dialogue and the fairness in the school.
The CONALITEG finally was founded by President López Mateos the 12 of February of 1959. The initial critics to so great project were not made wait for, since the Commission, still being a public organism, granted books free to private institutions from the beginning; the President simply responded: all are young, and all are part of our town.
The first books were a crucial subject, reason why its design had to be meticulous, in order not to contain expressions that provoked resentments, hatreds, prejudices or controversies. This mammoth task was entrusted to Martin Luis Guzmán, a military man, far-reaching, winning literate journalist and of the National Prize of Literature in 1958.
The work of Martin Luis Guzmán was translated in results that allowed to strengthen the mission of the CONALITEG like a pillar of equality in the education, since the book production supplied the national demand, and some of the titles reached thirteen reediciones in the subsequent years. In 1960 19 titles for the students of primary took place and 2 for the teacher, whose covers - responsibility of the illustrious artists David Alfaro Siqueiros, Montenegro Robert, Alfredo Zalce, Fernando Leal and Raul Anguiano- portrayed heroes of the mother country that, besides commemorating 150 years of independence and 50 of the Mexican revolution, they looked for to unfunded in the childhood the Mexican being.
In 1962 the CONALITEG consolidated their root between the Mexican populations when it used a work of Jorge González Camarena like cover of text books: "La Madre Patria", a woman of brown complexion, indigenous characteristics and valiant glance that, supported in agriculture, the industry and the culture - symbolized in the images of the shield and the national flag, an Earth book and diverse products and the industry, represented the past, present and future of our Nation. From that year and to 1972, that works illustrated more than 350 titles.
In 1966, the Commission extended its supply in support to the minority communities of the country by means of the book production in Braille. For 1972, the institution already produced 43 titles for students and 24 for teachers, who reflected the propose educative reforms by then President Luis Echeverria.
The death of Guzmán - happened in December of 1976 - did not interrupt the work of the institution. Thanks to the care and it gives of his management, the Commission had very well defined his processes and objectives that have been valued by the government and the Mexican population since then.
In 1977, the covers of text books were changed, and collections like Anthologies of Normal Education were elaborated, that they reunited titles destined to the diverse disciplines.
History from 1982 to 2006
Posteriormente, the books would modify their contents according to the reforms that the SEP carried out. As a result of the new educative programs, new books of first were published and secondly of primary. In 1982, the CONALITEG imprimió monographs of all the states of the Republic that became valuable material of consultation and ended, 20 years later, in the regional book production for each organization in the matters of history and geography. By that time it changed the denomination of the one in charge of the organism, of “President” a Chief of a main directorate. For 1987 one looked for to equip with new covers gratuitous text books. For this reason, the Secretariat of Public Education - to traverse of the National Commission of Gratuitous Text books he summoned painters of different artistic currents so that the new covers of the books of primary would engalanaran that began to use in text books as of 1988. These paintings, along with the previous ones mentioned, comprise of the compilation that today is known with the name “Art and Education” of the pictorial collection of the CONALITEG
At the end of 1989, the Commission orchestrated in books the propose reforms by the Secretariat of Public Education. The Educative modernization program would demand - in which respect to text books nodal changes in contents, illustrations, design and format. In agreement with this reform, the gratuitous books would be replaced in two phases, in order that September of 1994 stops, all the students of the primary schools would count on the new material. Also, the reforms to the basic education of 1992 implied that the production of gratuitous text books was increased. For this reason, in 1994 the Commission acquired two new rotating ones, which allowed to increase titles, to lower costs and of supporting diverse production of third parties (cultural and educative organizations, dependencies and instances). The Educative modernization program gave to the gratuitous text book the characteristics of work model to national level, as much in content as in presentation. In the middle of the 90, and for the first time in the history of the Commission, the gratuitous text books arrived at the schools before the beginning of classes, thanks to the coordination of efforts with different federal, state and municipal dependencies. From 1997 the program of Gratuitous Text book Distribution started up for Secondary, and so initially it benefitted to the students of the 1.743 municipalities with greater index of marginalization. For the scholastic cycle 1998-1999 it was taken care of more than two third parts of the total matriculation of that educative level. Years later and by presidential agreement, it was made extensive to all the students of secondary the right to gratuitous text books financed by the Federation. At the same time, the Commission omitted of its denomination the term (“National commission of Gratuitous Text books”) in order to be in (“National Gratuitous Text book commission”), that uses at the moment. From 1921, the teacher Jose Vasconcelos inspired to children and young people when he ordered the production of 21.000 books of Classic Readings, by two volumes. Eighty years later - in 2001-, the CONALITEG formed the base of the national program of reading “Towards a country of readers” with the creation of the programs Scholastic Libraries of Classroom and Libraries, whose objective consists of approaching children, young people and adults of all the schools from the country to books of the highest quality.
At the moment 3.601.000 Libraries of Classroom are in operation (827.203 distributed in scholastic cycle 2006-2007); each account with a heap of 1.935 titles. This year, the predicted production exceeds the 22 million units. In 2005, the CONALITEG internationalized their supply, by means of the text book production for the educandos of the Republic of Honduras, financed by the Honduran government and the World Bank. As it is possible to be appreciated, the National Gratuitous Text book Commission is one of the maintained and enriched educative policies more throughout the time: he has remained during 9 presidential terms and 15 different secretaries of public education.
The production of the organism vast and is specialized, with supply of books for pre-school, primary, secondary, telesecundaria, indigenous education (in 42 different languages), Braille and Macrotipo. From its foundation to the date, the historical production of the Commission surpasses book 5 billions.
Thus, like for 48 years, the CONALITEG bases his to drive in the effort of the Mexicans to reach the equality by means of the education of our childhood and youth.